Greenhouse gases description
The scope of regulation and GHG emissions trading. The Kyoto protocol.
In 1995 Kazakhstan ratified the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change, and in 2009 ratified the Kyoto Protocol, and thus became a full party of these international agreements.
The Kyoto Protocol, adopted in Kyoto in 1997, commits countries to reduce or stabilize greenhouse gas emissions. The Kyoto Protocol entered into force in 2005.
At the international level for the Republic of Kazakhstan in important decisions:
Marrakesh (Morocco, Marrakech, 2001), which defines us as a country for the purposes of Annex 1 of the Kyoto Protocol;
Nairobi, Kenya (2006) defines the base year for Kazakhstan in 1992;
Poznan (Poznan, Poland in 2008), where Kazakhstan took the voluntary quantitative commitments do not exceed the emission levels in 1992 on the crediting period from 2008 to 2012;
Cancun (Mexico 2010), which considered the official document on the inclusion of a proposal by Kazakhstan to introduce it in Annex B of the Kyoto Protocol.
The Durban Platform (South Africa 2011) discussion for adoption of a new protocol or legal instrument of a legally binding, which will replace the Kyoto Protocol, and should establish the obligation for all countries, including major developing countries. The new document should be developed by 2015 and come into force in 2020.
In June 2010, after the ratification of the Kyoto Protocol in 2009 by the Ministry of Environmental Protection, in cooperation with experts in the field of climate change, work began on the development of national greenhouse gas emissions trading.
The first step in this direction was the development of a separate chapter in the Environmental Code "State regulation of emissions and removals of greenhouse gas emissions". The law "On amendments and additions to some legislative acts of the Republic of Kazakhstan on environmental issues," adopted December 3, 2011.
The basic idea of the introduction of the above chapter is to create a national market for emissions trading of greenhouse gas emissions. The purpose of the introduction of the emissions trading system is to limit emissions of greenhouse gases in Kazakhstan. As you know, the Government of Kazakhstan is fully focused on the creation of a low carbon economy.
Emission trading is a market mechanism that stimulates the natural resources to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by investing in new “clean” technologies, updating the technical facilities, the creation of a new efficient production.
The principle of operation of the system is to limit the trade of natural resources in the emissions of greenhouse gases. Environmental Code of the threshold set for natural resource of 20 000 tons of CO2 -eq., Selected the most energy-intensive sectors of the economy. These companies are allocated a certain amount of GHG credits from the quantitative limits beyond which threatens to pay high fines.
Companies that reduced emissions below the limit for them may sell "unused" quotas to other companies. Buyers’ quotas are mainly companies which have difficulty meeting its quantified. The buyers may also be companies for which the purchase of emission allowances, combined with lower cost than the reduction in the number of these emissions. Carbon units, the quotas to be traded, are a kind of commodity.
Additional national environmental legislation does not limit the use of international carbon credits in order to meet its obligations to the state. The market may also be present as a unit of clean development mechanism projects and joint implementation. These projects are being implemented within the framework of the Kyoto Protocol.
In addition, natural resource users have the ability to implement projects to reduce internal, so-called projects that reduce greenhouse gas emissions for facilities that are not owned by the company. This mechanism provides an additional opportunity for companies to fulfill commitments to reduce GHG emissions through the implementation of internal projects.
In order to implement a comprehensive GHG emissions trading system in addition to the Environmental Code, adopted 17 Resolutions of the Government of the Republic of Kazakhstan, and 13 orders of the Minister.